Long Questions

1. Explain the counter current mechanism in the concentration of urine.

2. Describe the structure of the glomerular filter bed, and the factors affecting GFR. Add a note on measurement of glomerular filtration rate. Describe the best test for estimation of GFR

3. Define GFR. Explain briefly about mechanism of factors regulating GFR, . What is the routinely used clinical test to assess renal function?

4. Describe the mechanism of water absorption in the different segments of renal tubule

5. Short note juxtaglomerular apparatus. Regulation of renin secretion and pathway of renin angiotensin system (RAAS)

6. Describe the mechanism of urine formation

7. Renal clearance and it’s applications. What is Inulin clearance, Urea clearance, PAH and creatinine clearance?

Short Questions

1. What is Inulin clearance

2. Reabsorptive functions of the renal tubules

3. Write short note on Juxta Glomerular apparatus

4.Write short note on Glomerular filtration rate

5. Enn Concept of renal clearance

6. Write short note on regulation of GFR

7. Water reabsorption in the renal tubule

8. Counter current system in kidney

9. Regulation of acid base balance by kidney

10. Acidification of urine

11. Role of kidney in the maintenance of water balance in body

12. Explain the renal contribution of pH control

13. Describe briefly how micturition takes place

14. Innervation of urinary bladder and the role of nerves in micturition

16. Renin angiotensin system

18. Atonic bladder

19. Cystometrogram and its significance

20. Write short note on micturation reflex