Define haemostasis, describe the briefly about the mechanisms of clotting.

Spontaneous arrest or prevention of bleeding by physiological processes is called haemostasis.

Describe the various stages involved in platelet plug formation

What is the role of calcium in blood clotting process

Calcium act as a catalyst in many stages of cascade reaction. However, Calcium deficiency do not produce coagulation disorder’s because –

  • Only traces of Ca are required for coagulation  and the calcium ion very rarely falls to such low levels.
  • Even, if may very severe Calcium deficiency occurs,it produce other symptoms like tetany before coagulation disorder’s develop. 

Differentiate Adult hemoglobin and Fetal hemoglobin ?

Adult hemoglobin

  • two alpha chains and two beta chains.
  • lower affinity for oxygen than Fetal Hemoglobin.
  • present in adults
  • binds to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) to release oxygen
  • delivers oxygen to tissues and removes carbon dioxide

Fetal hemoglobin

  • two alpha chains and two gamma chains.
  • higher affinity for oxygen than Adult Hemoglobin
  • present during fetal development and decreases after birth
  • does not bind to 2,3-DPG, which allows it to bind to oxygen more effectively.
  • delivers oxygen from mother’s blood to fetal tissues

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