Leydig cells and Sertoli cells

Leydig Cells

  1. Location: Leydig cells are located in the interstitial tissue or the spaces between the seminiferous tubules in the testes.
  2. Function  Produce testosterone
  3. Hormonal regulation  Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  4. Other functions  Produce estradiol and inhibin

Sertoli Cells

  1. Location: Sertoli cells are found within the seminiferous tubules, which are the functional units of the testes.
  2. Function  Support the development of sperm cells
  3. Hormonal regulation Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  4. Other functions Produce anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin

Estrogen and progesterone


Production  Ovaries 

Function  Development and maintenance of female sex characteristics

Timing   Peaks during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

Effects  Stimulates the growth of the uterus, breasts, and vagina; increases bone density; regulates the menstrual cycle

Side effects Breast tenderness, bloating, mood swings

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Production   Ovaries and placenta during pregnancy

Function  Preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining pregnancy

Timing  Peaks during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle

Effects  Prepares the uterus for pregnancy, maintains pregnancy, suppresses ovulation

Side effects Fatigue, nausea, mood swings